OpenID - vieninga asmens tapatybė Internete

Rugpjūtis06

Žymės: openid,cards.lt

Pasidalink
OpenID Bob
Iliustracija: openidexplained.com

Problema

    Šiuolaikinis žmogus intensyviai dalyvauja įvairių Interneto tinklalapių veikloje: forumuose, socialiniuose tinkluose, naudojasi el. paštu ir t.t. Tam, kad vartotojas būtų identifikuojamas, prisijungiant prie Interneto svetainės, reikia įvesti savo vartotojo vardą (arba el. pašto adresą) bei slaptažodį, tačiau neretai kiekviename tinklalapyje šie prisijungimo duomenys yra skirtingi ir vartotojui reikia įsiminti kiekvieną jų. Nors daugelis naudoja vieną slaptažodį kelioms svetainėms, vartotojo vardai neretai būna skirtingi, kadangi registruojantis įprastas vartotojo vardas gali būti jau naudojamas kito asmens. Be to, ne visuose tinklalapiuose yra skiriama pakankamai vartotojo duomenų saugumui, todėl vartotojas negali būti tikras, jog kažkas kitas neprisijungs prie jo asmeninės Interneto erdvės.

Sprendimo būdai

    Sukurti saugią vieningą vartotojų prisijungimo sistemą keliems tinklalapiams nėra nauja idėja. Google naudoja GMail vartotojų duomenis įvairioms savo paslaugoms (Reader, Documents, Picasa, Calendar ir t.t.), Microsoft naudoja "Live ID" (anksčiau vadinosi .NET Passport). Lietuvoje taipogi yra panašus sprendimas - Epasas.lt, kurio pagalba galima prisijungti prie klase.lt, skelbimai.lt, skelbikas.lt, supervideo.lt svetainių. Tačiau šie prisijungimo standartai yra uždari ir naudojami tik prisijungimui prie tinklalapių, tiesiogiai priklausančių konkrečioms įmonėms, kurios pasilieka teisę kontroliuoti vartotojo internetinę tapatybę.

OpenID - kas tai?

    OpenID - vieningas ir atviras Interneto tapatybės standartas, kurio pagalba turint vieną OpenID identifikatorių galima prisijungti prie visų Internete esančių tinklalapių, kurie suteikia tokią galimybę. Būdamas atviras ir dokumentuotas, OpenID suteikia galimybę kiekvienam tinklalapiui turėti įdiegtą OpenID vartotojų prisijungimo sistemą. Taip gali būti sutaupomos lėšos, kurios turėtų būti skirtos vartotojų prisijungimo sistemos saugumui užtikrinti. Be to, toks tinklalapis bus patrauklus vartotojui, turinčiam OpenID identifikatorių, kadangi prisijungimo ir registracijos į OpenID palaikantį tinklalapį procesas gali būti pusiau arba pilnai automatizuotas ir greitas.

    OpenID - decentralizuota sistema. Tai reiškia, jog vartotojas gali rinktis iš daugybės skirtingų OpenID tiekėjų, tarp kurių yra ir IT milžinės: "Google", "Verisign", "Yahoo" ir kt.

    Pagrindinės sąvokos:

  • Vartotojas - interneto vartotojas (pvz.: Jūs);
  • OpenID tiekėjas - interneto servisas, suteikiantis vartotojams OpenID identifikatorius;
  • OpenID identifikatorius - Interneto adresas (URL), identifikuojantis vartotoją. OpenID tiekėjai kiekvienam vartotojui suteikia atskirą OpenID adresą, kuris naudojamas prisijungiant prie OpenID palaikančių Interneto svetainių. OpenID identifikatorių pavyzdžiai: http://vartotojo-vardas.myopenid.com, http://www.kitas-openid-tiekejas.com/vartotojo-vardas;
  • Tinklalapis - interneto svetainė, kuri naudoja OpenID, leidžiančią vartotojams prisijungti prie to tinklalapio sistemos.

Kaip tai veikia?

  1. Vartotojas užsiregistruoja OpenID tiekėjo sistemoje ir gauna OpenID identifikatorių:
    OpenID registracija
  2. Vartotojas ateina į tinklalapį ir OpenID prisijungimo laukelyje įveda savo OpenID identifikatorių:
    OpenID prisijungimo forma
  3. Vartotojas perkeliamas į OpenID tiekėjo tinklalapį. Šiame etape vartotojas perkeliamas į savo OpenID teikėjo tinklalapį, kuriame jis patvirtina savo tapatybę (pvz.: slaptažodžiu ar kitomis saugumo priemonėmis):
    OpenID prisijungimas
    Jei vartotojas prie tinklalapio jungiasi pirmą kartą, paprašoma patvirtinimo, jog leidžiama tinklalapiui perduoti prašomus duomenis apie vartotoją:
    OpenID patvirtinimas
  4. Vartotojas prijungiamas prie tinklalapio, perduodami duomenys, kurių prašo tinklalapis, vartotojas perkeliamas į tinklalapį jau kaip prisijungęs vartotojas.
  5. Jei vartotojas prie tinklalapio prisijungia pirmą kartą ir jam reikia užpildyti papildomus duomenis ar patvirtinti tuos, kuriuos tinklalapis gavo iš OpenID tiekėjo, vartotojo paprašoma tai padaryti.
  6. Vartotojas naudojasi tinklalapio funkcijomis, skirtomis registruotiems vartotojams:
    OpenID vartotojo CARDS.LT funkcijos

Saugumas

    Kai kurie skeptikai teigia, jog OpenID turi saugumo pažeidžiamumų duomenų vagystės atžvilgiu. Vartotojas, įvedęs savo OpenID identifikatorių žalingame tinklalapyje gali būti perkeliamas ne į savo OpenID tiekėjo tinklalapį, bet į vizualiai panašų kenksmingą tinklalapį. Suvedęs savo prisijungimo duomenis vartotojas juos perduoda sukčiams.

    Tam, kad apsisaugoti nuo galimos duomenų vagystės, reikia rinktis patikimą ir saugų OpenID tiekėją ir naudotis jų siūlomais saugumo sprendimais (pvz.: asmeninė iliustracija, kuri rodoma prisijungus TIK prie tikrojo tinklalapio).

Kas plėtoja ir prižiūri OpenID standartą

    OpenID yra valdomas ir prižiūrimas OpenID fondo. Šio fondo tarybos nariai yra "Google", "Microsoft", "IBM", "Verisign", "Yahoo" ir kt. kompanijų atstovai.

Reziume

    Pastaruoju metu Internetas tampa vis atviresnis ir labiau orientuotas į vartotoją, jo poreikius, asmens duomenų apsaugą. OpenID neabejotinai prisidės prie šio veiksnio ir bus plačiai naudojamas kaip vartotojų tapatybės sistema. Tai patvirtina didžiausių informacinių technologijų kompanijų veiksmai: Google (turintiems tinklaraštį blogspot.com sistemoje) ir Yahoo jau įdiegė OpenID į savo servisus.

    Kitas panašaus pobūdžio projektas OAuth veikia panašiu principu, tačiau yra skirtas ne vartotojo identifikavimui, o atitinkamų vartotojo duomenų perdavimui tarp įvairių Interneto (ir ne tik) tarnybų. Abu šie standartai turėtų sukurti vieningą sąsają plisti socialiniams veiksniams Internete.

Naudingos nuorodos

Oficialus OpenID tinklalapis

OpenID tiekėjai:

OpenID.lt
Person.lt
Manoid.lt
MyOpenID.com

Lietuvos tinklalapiai, prie kurių galima prisijungti su OpenID:


CARDS.LT - elektroniniai atvirukai ir sveikinimai
Fotofabrikas.lt - skaitmeninės nuotraukos internetu
Skaityta.lt - knygų apžvalgos
Gute.lt - vaikiški rūbai
asmeniniai-finansai.lt

Komentarai

Aidas Kasparas (2008-08-08 08:26:41)
O kodėl pas tamsta komentarus rašant negalima autentikuotis per OpenID? ;-) O tai ims kas nors ir prirašys balabaikų pasirašydamas lescinskas.lt vardu.

OpenID naudotojas
OpenID Paulius (2008-08-11 17:25:39)
Dėkui, Aidai, už pastabą. Jau galima šiame bloge naudoti OpenID autentifikacijai.
jonas (2010-03-22 15:50:18)
asdad
olqa (2011-03-18 07:52:10)
Gal galėtumėte pakomentuoti kokie dar motyvaciniai faktoriai, be lėšų taupymo ir saugumo klausimų, galėtų pastūmėt interneto psl. įdiegt OpenID prisijungimą?
OpenID Paulius (2011-03-18 14:54:12)
olqa > Bene didžiausias privalumas tinklalapiams, įdiegiantiems OpenID prisijungimo sistemą yra tas, kad vartotojams norint prisijungti prie tinklalapio, nebereikia registruotis. Tai reiškia, kad tinklalapiu gali IŠKART naudotis visi vartotojai, turintys OpenID (visi Google/GMail, Yahoo, Microsoft ir kt. vartotojai). Tai turėtų ženkliai padidinti konversijos (lankytojai -> registruoti vartotojai) reitingą.

Vienintelė problema - nors daugelis žmonių turi OpenID, jie nėra net girdėję apie jį, todėl tikslingiau rašyti "Prisijunk su GMail", o ne "Prisijunk su OpenID".
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Sukurti saugią vieningą vartotojų prisijungimo sistemą keliems tinklalapiams nėra nauja idėja. Google naudoja GMail vartotojų duomenis įvairioms savo paslaugoms (Reader, Documents, Picasa, Calendar ir t.t.), Microsoft naudoja "Live ID" (anksčiau vadinosi .NET Passport). Lietuvoje taipogi yra panašus sprendimas
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yctetk



(Tinklalapis arba OpenID)